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Also known as involuntary servitude, forced labor may result when unscrupulous employers exploit workers made more vulnerable by high rates of unemployment, poverty, crime, discrimination, corruption, political conflict, or even cultural acceptance of the practice. Immigrants are particularly vulnerable, but individuals also may be forced into labor in their own countries. Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually exploited as well.

Human Trafficking

Are Girls Victims?

Written by:
Thomson Reuters Foundation
While Thailand has ramped up efforts to tackle child sex trafficking in recent years, the crime is evolving and taking new forms such as the rising use of girls as “entertainers” to lure men into bars, according to police chiefs and campaigners. The majority of patrons, child waitresses and bar owners do not see this work as abusive or unlawful, but officials say it is a type of human trafficking that has largely gone under the radar – and proved difficult to investigate and prosecute.
Chiang Mai
,
Thailand
Human Trafficking

Issue Title 49

Written by:
Lisa Moore
Since the early 2000s, child prostitution has become an increasingly difficult issue for Indonesia. This issue particularly affects the party islands of Bali and Batam where tourists exploit the child sex trade. As “sex tourism” rises worldwide, Indonesia has become a major “destination country” for human trafficking. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 children and women are trafficked each year in Indonesia – 30 percent are below the age of 18. “The Women’s Institute, based in West Java, reports that some 43.5 percent of trafficking victims are as young as 14 years old.” An additional “40,000 to 70,000 children who are not trafficked are victims of other sexual exploitation.”
Bali
,
Indonesia
Human Trafficking

Trafficking Hubs

Written by:
UNICEF
The island of Mindanao has become one of the trafficking hotspots because of armed conflict. Children are trafficked to major cities and neighbouring countries, particularly Malaysia. Trafficking victims are promised jobs such as domestic helpers or entertainers. Unaware of the dangers ahead, children often have their own aspirations of wanting to see the big cities, helping their siblings and family, acquiring material gains, going to Japan as “entertainers”, and improving their physical appearance. Children are commonly trafficked for exploitation in the sex trade - an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 children in the Philippines are involved in prostitution rings. There is a high incidence of child prostitution in tourist areas. An undetermined number of children are forced into exploitative labor operations.
Pampanga
,
Philippines
Human Trafficking

Issue Title 29

Written by:
The Accountability Hub
The Philippines faces significant challenges as a source country and, to a lesser extent, a destination and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking for labour exploitation and forced labor. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), one million Filipino men and women leave the country every year to work overseas, and a total of 10 million Filipinos live and work abroad. A significant number of these Filipino overseas workers have been found to have been trafficked and subjected to servitude, debt bondage and forced labour in a number of industries, including in the manufacturing, construction, agricultural, fishing, seafaring, and the domestic work and service sectors in Asia and in the Middle East.
Cebu
,
Philippines
Human Trafficking

Forced and Exploited

Written by:
Celia Leones, Donna Caparas
Currently, the Philippines is one of largest migrant countries in the world. A percentage of this large migrant population comprises illegal migrants. Some of these are victims of human trafficking. In spite of the existence of legal channels for overseas employment in the Philippines, intermediaries who offer their services for the expeditious but illegal alternatives continue to exist, and this contributes to the problem of trafficking. Victims are subject to contract violations regarding pay and working conditions, are deceived about the nature of work they will have to undertake after arrival in the destination country, are forced into sexual contact with customers, and subjected to various forms of coercion, manipulation, physical and sexual assaults.
Manila
,
Philippines
Human Trafficking

Sold and Abused

Written by:
The ASEAN Post
The United Nations Action for Cooperation against Trafficking in Persons (UN-ACT) website states that Cambodia is a country of origin, destination and transit for trafficked persons. It also notes that sexual exploitation is a major form of exploitation for Cambodian victims trafficked both, domestically and internationally. Children are trafficked to Vietnam as well as within Cambodia, and that the sale of virgin women for sexual exploitation continues to be a serious concern. “Cambodia experiences significant internal and cross-border trafficking, and is a country of origin, transit and destination for trafficked persons. Human trafficking patterns and trends in Cambodia vary from small-scale opportunistic endeavours to large-scale organised syndicates with elaborate trafficking networks.”
Phnom Penh
,
Cambodia
Human Trafficking

Blood Bricks

Written by:
Laurie Parsons
Modern slavery in the form of child labour and debt bondage is endemic in the Cambodian brick-making industry. It is not a question of a few kilns, but every kiln. Almost every brick on which the nation’s construction boom rests is fired in kilns where children labour and adults languish for years in bondage. Yet this is an issue that can’t be resolved at its endpoint alone. What has allowed debt bondage to become so prevalent and normalised is the way in which Cambodia’s poorest have been made to bear the burden of their changing climate without provision for their well-being, or protections against the vagaries of the market.
Phnom Penh
,
Cambodia
Human Trafficking

Stranded Refugees

Written by:
Lainey Weiss
Due to its geographical location and economic strength, Malaysia is a popular destination country for women, men, and children from numerous countries to seek employment. It is currently estimated that there are approximately two million documented and more than two 23 million undocumented migrant workers in Malaysia. Those who are categorised as undocumented often enter Malaysia legally, but become undocumented later for various reasons. It is important to note that not all migrant workers are victims of trafficking, but many of them, including refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless persons, are vulnerable to trafficking. Unethical practices of recruitment agencies and employers subject migrant workers to disproportionately high recruitment fees, withholding of salary, debt bondage, confiscation of passports, excessive working hours, hazardous working conditions, physical abuse and humiliation, and other forms of human rights violations.
Country Wide
,
Malaysia
Human Trafficking

Children in Crisis

Written by:
The ASEAN Post
Malaysia is a destination and, to a certain extent, a source and transit country for immigrant men, women, and children subjected to forced labour, and women and a small number of children subjected to sex trafficking. Every year several cases of children being rescued from child trafficking syndicates are recorded in Malaysia. However immigration laws make no distinction between adults and minors (persons below 18 years old), children who are found in violation of immigration laws are subjected to the same arrest and detention conditions as adults
Perak and Kelantan
,
Malaysia

Also known as involuntary servitude, forced labor may result when unscrupulous employers exploit workers made more vulnerable by high rates of unemployment, poverty, crime, discrimination, corruption, political conflict, or even cultural acceptance of the practice. Immigrants are particularly vulnerable, but individuals also may be forced into labor in their own countries. Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually exploited as well.

Wildlife Trafficking

Poached to Extinction

Written by:
Petra Osterberg, Phamon Samphanthamit, Owart Maprang, Suwit Punnadee, Warren Y. Brockelman
The threats that gibbons are facing from habitat degradation are strongly exacerbated by pressure from the flourishing illegal wildlife trade for pets, entertainment, and traditional medicine. All but one species of gibbon are now listed as Endangered or Critically Endangered on IUCN's Red List, and without targeted conservation efforts several species of gibbons may face imminent extinction.
Phuket and Chiang Mai
,
Thailand
Wildlife Trafficking

Endangered Gentle Giants

Written by:
Roger Lohanan
Thai elephants have been highly praised and nationally proclaimed throughout history, but very little has been done to protect them. The threats against Thai elephants come only from human exploitation. Direct threats include poaching for ivory and elephant calves, and illegal logging or roaming the city streets for money. Indirect threats involve mismanagement and shortsighted policies, such as deforestation for agriculture, industrial plantations, dams or road constructions and commercialization of the forest reserve areas.
Chiang Mai, Phuket, Pattaya and Samui
,
Thailand
Wildlife Trafficking

An Elephant Situation: The Ugly side of Human-Elephant Interaction

Written by:
Claire Marshall
Millions of people want selfies riding elephants, or washing them, or patting their trunks. But according to a study carried out by World Animal Protection (WAP) across Asia this is helping to fuel a rise in elephants captured from the wild and kept for entertainment. The number in Thailand has increased by almost a third. WAP researchers assessed almost 3,000 elephants and found that more than three quarters were living in ‘severely cruel’ conditions. Many were bound with chains and forced to stand on concrete floors close to loud environments.
Sukhothai
,
Thailand
Wildlife Trafficking

Threats to Elephants

Written by:
Ashley Westerman
Centuries ago, the kingdom that made up much of modern-day Laos was called Lan Xang. In English: "Land of a Million Elephants." Yet while the Asiatic elephant may have endured as a cultural icon for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the numbers tell a story of a species in crisis. The Laos government and conservation groups estimate there are only about 800 elephants left in the country — 400 wild elephants, 400 in captivity. "Both populations are not sustainable and are actually declining," said Anabel López Pérez, a biologist from Spain with the Elephant Conservation Center. "And the problems that they face, both populations, are completely different."
Sayaboury
,
Laos
Wildlife Trafficking

Fight for Survival

Written by:
Duc Hanh Nguyen, Thi Mai Dinh
A number of large mammals or flagship species have become extinct or their populations have been severely declined due to overexploitation and illegal collecting, for example: Javan Rhinoceros (extinct), Indochinese Tiger, Gray Gaur, Wild Buffalo, Golden Deer, and Eld’s Deer. Vietnam is also known as an important hub and hotspot in Southeast Asia for the consumption of plant and wildlife products, and transit point for the illegal wildlife trade in Asia. Thousands of wildlife animals (more than 20,000 tons per year) have been exploited and consumed for traditional medicine or trade purposes in Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh
,
Vietnam
Wildlife Trafficking

An Extinction Crisis

Written by:
Chris Baraniuk
In the jungles of southwest Vietnam, a lone rhino once wandered. She was the last of her subspecies and this was her home. The last rhino spent her days roaming across thousands of hectares, a much wider range thought natural for these herbivores. But then again, she had the run of the place. There were creeks and rivers where she could wallow and there was plenty of food. But one day, a hunter peered at her through the sights of a semi-automatic weapon — and pulled the trigger. As that gunshot cracked out in echoes across the forest, the extinction of the Javan rhinos in Vietnam was sealed.
Cuc Phuong, Nho Quan, Ninh Binh
,
Vietnam
Wildlife Trafficking

Critically Endangered

Written by:
Trang Bui
Vietnam has one of the most endangered primate species in the world; the Delacour's langur and the Golden-headed langur. Poaching pressure on several these highly endangered species has become severe, and the wild population is rapidly decreasing. Due to declining wild populations species mainly attributed to the rapidly industrialising country, there is need for these species to be protected.
Country Wide
,
Vietnam
Wildlife Trafficking

Most Endangered Primates

Written by:
Phan Duy Thuc, Nam C. Nguyen, Ockie J. H. Bosch, Le Thanh Tuyen
Golden-headed langur or Cat Ba Langur, belongs to the subfamily of the leaf-eating monkeys, which exists only on Cat Ba Island of Vietnam. This subspecies is probably the most endangered species of the Asian colobines and has the smallest distribution among the langur species. Cat Ba langurs are classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red List and listed as the world’s 25 most endangered primates from 2000 to 2012. Poaching for traditional medicine and bush meat has been the main cause leading to small, isolated subpopulations and low population numbers. As a result of hunting, langur population was dramatically declined from approximately 2,400 – 2,700 in the 1960s to only 52 - 54 individuals in 2001, and most of the groups are already in reproductive isolation with no opportunity to exchange group members.
Hai Phong
,
Vietnam
Wildlife Trafficking

Booming Illegal Wildlife Trade

Written by:
Cao Ngoc Anh, Tanya Wyatt
Illegal wildlife trade is a pervasive and destructive crime that is contributing to biodiversity loss and species extinction around the globe. This is particularly true in Vietnam where, it is proposed, the convergence of four factors creates the conditions for the illegal wildlife trade to flourish. The human-centered approach to Vietnam’s diverse ecosystem, historic consumption of wildlife, rapidly developing economy, and embryonic environmental legislation has resulted in the continued degradation of a unique and important environment.
Hanoi
,
Vietnam
Wildlife Trafficking

Displaced Orang Utans

Written by:
Ayat S. Karokaro, Junaidi Hanafiah
Between 2013 and 2018, authorities in Aceh, which is home to the Leuser Ecosystem, one of the last great orangutan habitats left on Earth, seized 40 of the apes that were being kept as pets. The practice of taking young orangutans from the wild nearly always involves the poachers killing the mothers. Conservationists also say there needs to be a halt to forest-clearing activities to stop orangutans from being pushed out of their habitats. They also say forests that have already been degraded need to be restored and protected, so that rescued orangutans deemed ready for release back into the wild can have a new home safe from human threats. “Degraded forests should be immediately restored instead of converting them into oil palm plantations, so that wildlife habitats aren’t reduced,” said Teuku Muhammad Zulfikar, a coordinator at the NGO Yayasan Ekosistem Lestari (YEL).
Kalimantan
,
Indonesia
Wildlife Trafficking

State of Sharks

Written by:
Sarah Dean
According to the Jakarta Post, Green Peace Indonesia data shows that the country produces at least 486 tons of dried shark fins a year. Despite objections from the Indonesian Government, shark catching is still rife and hard to control. There are concerns about shark over exploitation among Indonesia's conservation activists. 'Currently, Indonesia is at the top of the 20 largest shark fishing countries in the world,' Save Sharks Indonesia campaign director Riyanni Djangkaru said. Over 71 per cent are classified as vulnerable or endangered by the Conservation of Nature, meaning they are considered to be at high or very high risk of extinction in the wild. 
Bali
,
Indonesia
Wildlife Trafficking

Billions in Wildlife Trade

Written by:
WWF Singapore
Singapore has been identified as a major transit hub for the illegal wildlife trade. The country’s strong connectivity makes it an attractive route for syndicates to move products through its shores. As the illegal wildlife trade is globally connected, any measures on Singapore’s part to address its role as a transit hub will have a significant impact on international progress.
Country Wide
,
Singapore
Wildlife Trafficking

Nationally Extirpated

Written by:
Lauren Coad, Sotheary Lim, Lim Nuon
Several larger-bodied mammals have been nationally extirpated through over-hunting including the Javan Rhinoceros, with no confirmed sightings in the Cardamoms or Cambodia since the 1980's and the Indochinese tiger, which was declared functionally extinct in Cambodia in 2016. The Indochinese leopard was found to have declined in abundance by 72% between 2009 and 2014 in the Srepok Wildlife Sanctuary, Eastern Cambodia, most probably due to widespread snare hunting, and is now under threat of national extirpation. In 2000, of the 67 mammal species recorded in the Cardamom mountains, 26 were threatened or near-threatened according to the IUCN Red list, with the greatest threat coming from commercial hunting.
Senmonorom
,
Cambodia
Wildlife Trafficking

At the Brink of Disappearance

Written by:
Jazmyn Himel
During a patrol, the Sre Ambel Station rangers recently confiscated seven live monkeys, 16 turtles and two kilograms of monkey meat, according to a Wildlife Alliance Facebook post. The wildlife was likely heading for a restaurant or the pet trade, the Facebook post explained on March 18. With the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) believed to have originated in a wildlife and wet market in the city of Wuhan in China, it was expected that illegal wildlife trade would decrease in view of the pandemic triggered by COVID-19. But this does not seem to have been the case. “If anything, we are noticing an increase in poaching and smuggling, rather than the much hoped-for decrease that everyone was expecting,” Suwanna Gauntlett, CEO and Founder of Wildlife Alliance, said on May 19. “Our Wildlife Alliance rangers on ground are witnessing more poachers coming into the forest with guns and snares,” she said. The main hotspot is the Vietnam border, which also has a high-level of illegal deforestation and poaching, she added.
Siem Reap
,
Cambodia
Wildlife Trafficking

Suffering Unseen

Written by:
Jessica McLaughlin
Hose's civets are blackish-brown, with a long body and short legs. Its underparts are greyish or yellowish-white. As they are very elusive animals, the exact status of Hose's civets is uncertain. It is likely, however, that they have been adversely impacted by human activity such as logging throughout their range. Low population densities could make them vulnerable to the region-wide habitat loss and degradation associated with logging and development. Because of this, the IUCN has listed them as Vulnerable. In Sarawak, Malaysia, they are listed as protected.
Sarawak
,
Malaysia
Wildlife Trafficking

Tiny Bears in Great Danger

Written by:
Lalita Gomez, Chris R Shepherd, M Sheng Khoo
Malaysia is a known source and consumer of bear bile products in Asia, and sun bears are persistently poached to meet the demand for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Surveys of TCM outlets in the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak were conducted in 2018 and 2019 as part of continuing efforts to monitor the availability of bear bile products in the country. Despite being illegal, the trade in bears and their parts persists, although with fewer TCM outlets offering such products in comparison to numbers reported in previous studies. In 2012, 42% of TCM outlets in Sabah and 35.4% in Sarawak were found to contain bear bile products. The threat of illegal trade, combined with loss and degradation of suitable habitat and food resources as well as conflict with humans, puts sun bears at considerable risk.
Sabah
,
Malaysia
Wildlife Trafficking

The Forest Farmer in Trouble

Written by:
Rachael Bale
The helmeted hornbill, one of 57 hornbill species in Africa and Asia, is found only in the lowland forests of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, southern Thailand. Hornbills are vital to the survival of Southeast Asia’s forests. As “farmers of the forest,” they disperse seeds by regurgitating or defecating them, helping to replenish trees over several square miles. It’s an especially important task now, given how much primary forest has been cleared by commercial enterprises. Widespread logging also is reducing habitat for Asian hornbill species and threatening their ability to nest.
Country Wide
,
Brunei

Also known as involuntary servitude, forced labor may result when unscrupulous employers exploit workers made more vulnerable by high rates of unemployment, poverty, crime, discrimination, corruption, political conflict, or even cultural acceptance of the practice. Immigrants are particularly vulnerable, but individuals also may be forced into labor in their own countries. Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually exploited as well.

Environmental Conservation

Lack of Conservation

Written by:
Claire Salisbury
Wildlife Conservation Society’s Dr. Madhu Rao, reports that “Things are now changing rapidly for Myanmar, which will soon experience increasing economic growth and the myriad cascading effects of climate change on its forests and coastlines. The opportunity to protect the country’s natural heritage with a strategic and multi-faceted approach is now.”
Country Wide
,
Myanmar
Environmental Conservation

Changing Oceans

Written by:
Robbie Weterings
According to a GIS-based assessment of Koh Tao by Robbie Weterings, the enormous reef recreation industry on the island has caused a lot of stress to the reefs. While it was expected that the divers from the large number of diving schools would cause damage to the coral, commercially organized snorkel trips appeared to be more destructive. Most reef areas that were stressed suffered from sedimentation and physical damage caused by snorkeling and diving.
Koh Tao
,
Thailand
Environmental Conservation

Polluted Rivers

Written by:
Jennifer Möller-Gulland, Abedalrazq F. Khalil
Deterioration in water quality, and pollution loads are rising, contaminating surface and groundwater are creating public health hazards. Solid waste from municipalities poses another threat to surface waters.
Hanoi
,
Vietnam
Environmental Conservation

Illegal Logging

Written by:
Suzanne M.Stas, Tinh Cong Le, Hieu Dang Tran, Thi Thai Hoa Hoang, Marijke van Kuijk,An Van Le, Duc Tung Ngo, Ad van Oostrum, Oliver L. Phillips, Ervan Rutishauser, Benedict D. Spracklen, Tuyet Thi Anh Tran, Trai Trong Le, Dominick V. Spracklen
Between 1943 and 1993 much of the Vietnam’s forests were cleared, with forest cover declining from 43% to 28% (FCPF, 2018). Since then, forest cover has increased due to the expansion of plantations and natural forest regeneration. At the same time, remaining natural forests have become increasingly degraded through ongoing logging (Cochard et al., 2017, de Jong et al., 2006, Meyfroidt and Lambin, 2008).
Hanoi
,
Vietnam
Environmental Conservation

Out of Space

Written by:
Johnny Wood
Indonesia has become a dumping ground for vast quantities of the world’s unwanted plastic. Plastic is burned on a large scale to ease Indonesia’s overflowing rubbish dumps, while truckloads of waste are sold to local communities. The incinerated plastic causes respiratory problems for people who inhale its toxic smoke.
Bali
,
Indonesia
Environmental Conservation

Heightened Floods

Written by:
Azmeri, Iwan K. Hadihardaja, Rika Vadiya
Currently the primary threats to the Leuser Ecosystem are illegal roads and deforestation. This is due to a global demand for products like timber and palm oil. Profits go to an elite and frequently to outside parties, as opposed to the local communities in Aceh. Moreover, the short-term financial gains are countered by significant socio-economic as well as environmental damage in the long-term. Flash floods and landslides are already causing massive losses to the lives and livelihoods of Aceh’s people as its forests are increasingly destroyed.
Aceh
,
Indonesia
Environmental Conservation

Underwater Junkyards

Written by:
Norman Harsono
Eight ministries declared that Indonesia produces between 0.27 and 0.59 million tons of marine debris each year. Controversy arose when Jenna Jambeck’s study calculated that Indonesia produced around 1.29 million tons of marine debris each year, which is at least twice the government figure.
Country Wide
,
Indonesia
Environmental Conservation

A Burning Issue

Written by:
Chelsea Petrenko, Julia Paltseva, Stephanie Searle
Much of the rainforest in Indonesia grows on carbon-rich peatland, the destruction of which adversely affects both biodiversity and the climate. The increasing demand for palm oil leads to expansion of this industry onto other cropland, secondary forests already logged for timber, and native tropical forests. This increasingly replaces tropical forests with monoculture crop systems, depletes biodiversity, destroys old growth rainforests and causes air pollution.
Country Wide
,
Indonesia
Environmental Conservation

Coral Bleaching

Written by:
D Susiloningtyas, T Handayani, A N Amalia
Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest level of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystem. Coral reefs are a fragile ecosystem and highly vulnerable to overfishing, destructive fishing practices, pollution, and natural factors. Climate change is one of the natural factors that impacted coral reefs such as bleaching. Indonesia holds 12.5% of the world's total coral reefs area (±58.000 km2). Bali, part of The Coral Triangle is one of the popular areas in Indonesia and need to be closely monitored.
Bali, North Sulawesi, Maluku, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara and DKI Jakarta
,
Indonesia
Environmental Conservation

Zero Waste

Written by:
John Geddie
Almost all of Singapore’s non-recyclable waste is incinerated, with the ash and some solid waste shipped to a man-made island nearby that doubles as a nature reserve. But that solution looks as if it is running short on time. The tip on Semakau island was supposed to meet Singapore’s dumping needs until as late as 2045, according to environment ministry documents. But with the use of disposable products growing at a rapid rate, the ministry’s most recent estimates show that Semakau could be full a decade earlier.
Country Wide
,
Singapore
Environmental Conservation

Challenging Environmental Issues

Written by:
Dewey Sim
As low-lying Pacific nations explore the idea of building artificial land to survive climate change, a country less known as a victim of the phenomenon may be following in their footsteps. Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong floated a number of solutions the city state could adopt to address the fallout from global warming. He said about S$100 billion (US$72 billion) would be needed over the next century to make these proposals a success and protect the country’s 5.6 million residents from rising sea levels.
Country Wide
,
Singapore
Environmental Conservation

A Need for Change

Written by:
Teresa Teo Guttensohn
In Singapore, primeval rain forests have been whittled to less than 0.3 per cent. With rising temperatures and sea levels, and given the inter-connectivity between the well-being of humans and the health of nature and biodiversity, there is a need to seriously rethink what value the last wilderness areas mean in Singapore. It is crucial to act now to preserve them.
Country Wide
,
Singapore
Environmental Conservation

Local Threats

Written by:
World Resources Institute
The use of cyanide to stun and capture live coral reef fish began in the 1960s in the Philippines to supply the growing market for aquarium fish. Despite the fact that cyanide fishing is nominally illegal in virtually all Indo-Pacific countries, the high premium paid for live reef fish, weak enforcement capacities, and frequent corruption have spread the use of the poison across the entire region. Since the 1960s, more than one million kilograms of cyanide has been squirted onto Philippine reefs
Malapascua Island, Cebu
,
Philippines
Environmental Conservation

Plastic Torrents

Written by:
Alixandra Vila
Masses of plastic trash swirling in waterways, garbage clogging drainage canals and huge stinking dump sites are among the most visible manifestations of the waste crisis in the Philippines. A 2015 report on plastic pollution by the Ocean Conservancy charity and the McKinsey Centre for Business and Environment ranked the Philippines as the third-largest source of discarded plastic that ends up in the ocean.
Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental
,
Philippines
Environmental Conservation

Under Pressure

Written by:
Héloïse Garry
Philippines is struggling to conserve its marine life in the face of overfishing, destructive fishing practices, and growing plastic pollution. These human activities coupled with climate change have led to an unparalleled decimation of its marine biodiversity. According to a study published in the Philippine Journal of Science reports that reefs in the country’s territorial waters are no longer in excellent condition, and that 90% are classified as either poor or fair. Another 2017 report by the United Nations predicted that all 29 World Heritage coral reefs, including one in the Philippines, will die out by 2100 unless carbon emissions are drastically reduced.
Zamboanguita
,
Philippines
Environmental Conservation

Dying Reefs

Written by:
Henrylito D. Tacio
According to a statement by the Southeast Asian Centre of Excellence (SEA CoE), many local, coastal communities do not understand or know what a coral reef actually is, how its ecosystem interacts with them, and why it is so important for their villages to preserve and conserve it. Unfortunately, these beautiful coral reefs are now at serious risk from degradation. According to scientists, 70 percent of the world's coral reefs may be lost by 2050. In the Philippines, coral reefs have been slowly dying over the past 30 years. 
Southern Leyte
,
Philippines
Environmental Conservation

The Earth Needs Saving

Written by:
Nithya Natarajan, Katherine Brickell, Laurie Parsons
Cambodia is undergoing a rapid process of urbanisation. Between 1998 and 2018, the country’s urban population grew by an estimated 197% (National Institute of Statistics (NIS), 2016), a key factor in which have been the agricultural pressures engendered by climate change. Cambodia repeatedly cited as one of the most climate insecure countries globally (UNDP Cambodia, 2014).
Country Wide
,
Cambodia
Environmental Conservation

Nature is Losing

Written by:
Jason Thomas
Cambodia has one of the worst deforestation rates in the world, and the country's primary rainforest cover went from over 70 percent in 1970 to just three percent today. Cambodia's deforestation has been accelerating over the past decade due to industrial plantation expansion, logging and agriculture.
Phnom Penh
,
Cambodia
Environmental Conservation

Reefs Under Pressure

Written by:
Catherine P. S. Cheung, Porfirio M. Aliño, Andre Jon Uychiaoco, Hazel O. Arceo
Coastal development, including tourism-related development, is especially apparent Pulau Redang and Tioman Marine Parks in Malaysia. Large resorts including golf courses increase sediment loading in the sea. This sedimentation was linked with increases in percentage of dead coral cover near the development sites. The coral reefs at Pulau Tioman have also suffered from pollution and commercial coral collection.
Tioman Island, Pahang
,
Malaysia
Environmental Conservation

We are Low On Gas

Written by:
Noranida Mokthsim, Khairulmaini Osman Salleh
Environmental resources exploitation are important generators of economic growth but exploitation of environmental resources have led to a steady increase in environmental degradations. These issues are becoming more intense and frequent not only in Malaysia but for the region as a whole. This impacts the social wellbeing and quality of life.
Ulu Muda, Kedah
,
Malaysia
Environmental Conservation

We Could Lose it All

Written by:
Gary S. Silverman, Marian K. Silverman
With the rapid economic growth of Malaysia, this can possibly result in the loss of a high-quality tropical environment. Air pollution and waste management is perceived of as key local environmental issues with industrial emissions that lead to local environmental degradation. Other issues include loss of critical habitat as well as river pollution.
Kuala Lumpur
,
Malaysia
Environmental Conservation

Hungry Households

Written by:
Leh Shii Law, Sulaiman Norhasmah, Wan Ying Gan, Adznam Siti Nur’Asyura, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir
Over the course of 16 years, a high percentage of Orang Asli (OA) households in Malaysia has been found to be burdened with food insecurity. The first research related to food security among the Orang Asli (OA) was conducted by Zalilah and Tham who found that 82% of the OA households at Hulu Langat, Selangor were food-insecure. Some of the main challenges to achieving food security include the failure in agriculture, depletion of natural commodities, reduced demands of natural commodities, weather, and water issues.
Sabah
,
Malaysia